What is Masonry, With Definition of Terms
Masonry may be defined as the art of construction in which building units, such as clay bricks, sand-lime, bricks, stones, Pre-cast hallow concrete blocks, concrete slabs, glass bricks, a combination of some of these building units etc are arranged systematically and bonded together to form a homogeneous mass in such a manner that they can withstand point to other loads and transmit then through the mass without fail or disintegration.
Category of Masonry
Masonry can be classified into the following categories.
1. Stone masonry
2. Brick masonry
3. Hallow block concrete masonry
4. Reinforced masonry
5. Composite masonry
These can be further sub-divided into varies types depending upon workmanship and type of materials used.
Definitions terms of Masonry:
1. Course: A course is a horizontal layer of bricks stones.
2. Bed: the surface of a stone perpendicular to the line of pressure of (lower surface of bricks or stones in each course).
3. Back: The inner surface of the wall not exposed is called back. The material forming back is known as backing.
4. Face: The exterior of the wall exposed to weather is known as a face. The material used in the facing of a wall is known as facing.
5. Hearting: It is the interior portion of a wall between facing and backing.
6. Head: It is a brick or stone, which lies with its greatest length at right angles to the face of the work.
7. Stretcher: It is a brick or a stone which lies with its longest side parallel to the face of the work.
8. Bond: The method of arranging bricks so that the individual units are tied together.
9. Spalls: The chips of stones used for filling the interstices in stone masonry.
10. Quoins: The stones used for the corners of walls of a structure.
11. Bat: It is a portion of a brick cut across the width.
12. Closer: It is the portion of a brick cut in such a manner that its one long face remains uncut.
13. Queen closer: it is the portion of a brick obtained by cutting a brick length-wise into two portions.
14. King closer: It is the portion of brick obtained by cutting off the triangular piece between the centre of one end and the centre of one side.
15. Bevelled closer: It is the portion of a brick in which the whole length of the brick is bevelled for maintaining half width at one end and full width at the other.
16. Frog: It is an indentation or depression on the top face of a brick made with the object of forming a key for the mortar.
17. Sill: It is a horizontal stone, concrete or wood, employed for the purpose of shedding off rainwater from the face of the wall immediately below the window opening.
18. Corbel: It is the extension of one or more course of stone or brick from the face of a wall to serve as a support for wall plates.
19. Templates: Pieces of stones placed under the end of a beam to distribute the load over a greater area.
20. Coping: It is the course placed upon the exposed top of an external wall to prevent the seepage of water.
21. Buttress: It is a sloping or stepped masonry projection from a tall wall intended to strengthen the wall against the thrust of a roof.