How does the ratio of sand to cement affect the strength of concrete?
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The ratio of sand to cement affects the strength of concrete by changing its workability, water-cement ratio, shrinkage and creep properties, as well as its resistance to weathering effects. A higher ratio of sand to cement results in a weaker concrete due to its higher water-cement ratio, which results in more shrinkage and less strength.
A lower ratio of sand to cement results in a stronger concrete because it has a lower water-cement ratio, which levels out the shrinkage, resulting in enhanced strength.