What is Scaffolding?
When the height of the wall or other structural member of the building exceeds about 1.50 m a temporary structure, usually of timber planks and bamboos, is erected close to the work to provide a safe working platform for the workers, which is known as scaffolding. It is very useful in construction, demolition, maintenance or repairing works.
Components of Scaffolding
The various component parts of a scaffolding arc as follows :
1) Standards : These are the vertical members, supported on ground.
2) Ledgers : These are the horizontal members, running parallel to the wall.
3) Braces : These are the diagonal members fixed on standards.
4) Putlogs : These are the transverse members which are placed at right angles to the wall with one end supported on ledgers and the other end on the wall.
5) Transoms : These are the putlogs whose bath ends are supported on ledgers.
6) Bridle : This is the member used to bridge a wall opening. supports one end of putlog at the opening.
7) Boarding : These are the horizontal platform to support workmen and material, which are supported on the putlogs.
8) Guard rail : This is the rail, provided like a ledger, at the working level.
9) Toe board : These are the boards, placed parallel to ledgers and supported on putlogs, to give protection at the level of working platform.
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Types of Scaffolding
The various types of scaffolding are as follows :
1. Brick layer’s scaffolding
2. Masson’s scaffolding
3. Cantilever or Needle scaffolding
4. Suspended scaffolding
5. Trestle scaffolding
6. Steel scaffolding
7. Patented scaffolding
Brick Layer’s Scaffolding
This type of scaffolding consists of vertical members called standards firmly secured in ground at 2.4 to 3.0 m. intervals. The standards are connected to each other by longitudinal horizontal members called ledgers at 1.20 to 1.50 m.
The putlogs are the transverse horizontal members lashed on the ledgers at one end and into the holes in the wall at the other end. Putlogs are 90 cm. in length and are spaced at 1.20 m. apart. They are provided to support the working platform. In high scaffolding, cross bracings are used to stiffen the temporary structure. Braces consist of poles tied by rope lashing on the standards.
In stone masonry, it is difficult to leave the holes to provide bearing for the putlogs. In mason’s scaffolding, two frames of standards, ledgers, and braces are used.
The first frame is placed close to the wall and the other frame is placed at 1.0 m. from the first one. Thus, the masson’s scaffolding is entirely independent of the stone wall.
Cantilever or Needle Scaffolding
When the scaffolding is to be provided on the side of a busy street, where the erection of scaffolding will obstruct the traffic on road, the needle scaffolding is used.
The scaffolding may be single type (Brick layer’s type) In case of single type scaffolding, the standards are supported on series of needles taken out through opening or through holes in the wall.
In case of double type scaffolding, the needle or projecting beams are strutted inside the floors, through the openings.
This is a light weight scaffolding used for maintenance works such as painting, pointing, white washing, distempering, etc.
The working platform is suspended from the roofs by means of ropes, wires or chains, etc. This type of scaffolding does not create any obstruction on the ground.
In this type of scaffolding, the working platform is supported on movable contrivances such as ladders, tripod, etc. This type of scaffolding is useful for minor repairs or painting work inside the rooms and the maximum height up to 5.0 m. from the supporting surface.
In steel scaffolding, the steel tubes are used in place of timber. 6. The tubes of 40 to 50 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick are available in standard lengths with special couplings and set- screws. The scaffolding can be used up to any height.
It is strong and more durable and can be easily erected and dismantled. It possesses high scrap value and resistant to fire. However, the disadvantage in using steel scaffolding , is that the higher initial cost, it requires skilled labour and requires periodical painting.
Various types of patented scaffoldings, with special types of couplings and frames are available in market. The working platform is supported on a bracket, which can be adjusted to any suitable height.
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