Today, in this blog post we are going to discuss the different types of beam and their classification based on end supports, the shape of the cross-section, type of material, geometry, equilibrium condition, and many others. Before diving towards the different types of beam, we must be familiar with the term beam. What does it mean? So, let’s start.

Define the term beam.

The beam is a kind of structural member. Its main purpose is to transfer the loads produced on its axis to its different supportive units like
columns, walls, etc.

Now, let’s talk about the different types of beam and their classification.

What are the different types of beams?

The different types of beam and their classification based on end supports, the shape of the cross-section, type of material, geometry, equilibrium condition, and many others are enlisted below:

According to end supports condition

  • Simply supported beam
  • Cantilever beam
  • Continuous beam
  • Fixed end beam
  • Overhanging beam
  • Double overhanging beam

According to the type of material

  • Concrete beam
  • Steel beam
  • Timber beam

According to the geometry

  • Straight beam
  • Curved beam
  • Tapered beam

According to the casting condition

  • In-situ casting
  • Precast concrete beam
  • Prestressed concrete beam

According to the shape of the cross-section

  • Rectangular Beam
  • I- beam
  • T- beam
  • C- Beam

According to the equilibrium condition

  • Statically determinate beam
  • Statically indeterminate beam

Also Read: Types Of Foundation & Their Uses In Building Construction

According to end supports condition

1. Simply Supported Beam

It is a kind of beam supported at two ends. It consists of pin support at one end and a roller support at the other end.simply supported beamIt is the simplest structural element. Its ends willingly rest on different structural elements like walls or columns or stick edges. In all those above-mentioned cases, the reaction goes upwards.

2. Cantilever Beam

It is a kind of beam whose one end is fixed and the other end is left free. In other words, it’s one end is anchored.

This type of beam transmits the load to the support where it is pushed against by the moment and shear stress acting on it. Cantilevers can also be designed with trusses or slabs.Cantilever Beam

 

Some of the examples of cantilever beams are the corridors in a building, highway directional signs, swimming pool diving boards, and many more.

3. Continuous Beam

It is a kind of beam that consists of more than two different types of supports. The supports placed at both the ends of the beams are called end supports and the supports placed between the end supports are known as intermediate supports.Continuous Beam

4. Fixed End Beam

This type of beam is fixed at both ends and supported by different structural elements like walls and columns which restrains it from rolling or moving horizontally or vertically at any end. Fixed End Beam

5. Overhanging Beam

This type of beam is one in which the supports are not placed at the ends i.e. supports are placed beyond the ends. It possesses the properties of both a simply supported beam and a cantilever beam. 

Overhanging Beam 

6. Double Overhanging Beam

The overhanging part can be placed at one end or at both ends of the beam which is known as a double overhanging beam.

Double Overhanging Beam

According to the type of material

1. Concrete Beam

Reinforced concrete beams are the important structural members of the buildings which are constructed to hold up the transverse external loads.  This carries bending moment, shear forces, and in some examples torsion across their length.Concrete Beam

2. Steel Beam

Steel Beams are produced from the molten steel formed into molds and rolled out in different shapes like Beams. Steel beams are very tough, solid, and high stability material in comparison to other building materials.Steel Beam

Steel beams are utilized in various types of structures like building, workshops, steel roof trusses, bridges, etc.

3. Timber Beam

The timber beam is mostly utilized in the wooden roof truss structure.  The timber beam pushes horizontally between two locales on both sides of the wooden truss.Timber Beam

According to the geometry

1. Straight Beam

This kind of beam is supported at two ends and also carries shearing force and bending moments.

2. Curved Beam

This kind of beam is supported at two ends and also carries shearing force, torsional force, and bending moments.

3. Tapered Beam

It is the same as a straight beam but the cross-sectional area of one end of the beam will be bigger than the other end. It is similar to I-beam.

Also Read: 11 Steps in Construction of Multi Storey Buildings

According to the casting condition

  • In-situ casting
  • Precast concrete beam
  • Prestressed concrete beam

1. In-situ Casting

These are those kinds of beams that are cast in-site and cured. For the process of casting the beam, form-work is cured in the definite size, and the fresh concrete is spattered in the forms, the compression is done with the vibratory equipment.

2. Precast concrete beam

The Precast beams are cast or built in a plant and far away from the building in a very restrained atmosphere, and favorable conditions are rendered to castings to ascertain the ultimate strength of the beam.

3. Prestressed Concrete Beam

As its name signifies they are prestressed before the process of casting of the beam. Concrete beam structure is arranged with tension wire in it and hydraulic jacks are employed to provide pretension before the process of casting.

According to the shape of the cross-section

Different Types of Beam

1. Rectangular Beams

The rectangular beams have a cross-section rectangular shape. These kinds of beams commonly encounter tension at the bottom and compression at the top.

Rectangular beams are the most popular types of beams utilized in constructing buildings.

2. I-Beam

I – Beam is shaped like an alphabet “I”.   Also, it is a structural element in the form of an “I”, implying a central tangle with a crossbar at the top and bottom.

3. T-Beam

The beam is constructed in the shape of a “T” cross-section. This beam is normally shaped with the slab.  As a result, the slab works as an essential part of the beam and twists in the longitudinal direction of the beam.

4. L-Beam

L – Beam placed at the corner or around the perimeter of the slab. Also, we can determine the end beams including slabs only on one side.

According to the equilibrium condition

1. Statically Determinate Beams

You must find that cantilevers, simply supported beams, and overhanging beams are known as Statically Determinate Beams. Because the reactions of these beams at their end supports can be assumed by the rule of equations of static equilibrium and the reactions are free of the deformation of beams.

2. Statically Indeterminate Beams

The fixed beams and continuous beams are inferred as Statically Indeterminate Beams because their reactions cannot be assumed by the rule of equations of static equilibrium.

Also Read: Grading of Aggregates by Using Different Methods


Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What are the different types of supports?

    There are five different types of supports enlisted below:

    • Roller supports
    • Pinned support
    • Fixed support
    • Hanger support
    • Simple support

  2. What are the purposes of the beam rules?

    The main purpose of the beams are as follows:-

    • Contradict bending moment and shear forces.
    • Unite the building together.
    • Provide a uniform distribution of loads.

  3. What is a simple beam?

    It is a kind of beam supported at two ends. It consists of pin support at one end and a roller support at the other end.

    It is the simplest structural element. Its ends willingly rest on different structural elements like walls or columns or stick edges. In all those above-mentioned cases, the reaction goes upwards.

  4. What are the different types of beams?

    The different types of beam and their classification based on end supports, the shape of the cross-section, type of material, geometry, equilibrium condition, and many others are enlisted below:

    According to end supports condition

    • Simply supported beam
    • Cantilever beam
    • Continuous beam
    • Fixed end beam
    • Overhanging beam
    • Double overhanging beam

    According to the type of material

    • Concrete beam
    • Steel beam
    • Timber beam

    According to the geometry

    • Straight beam
    • Curved beam
    • Tapered beam

    According to the casting condition

    • In-situ casting
    • Precast concrete beam
    • Prestressed concrete beam

     According to the shape of the cross-section

    • Rectangular Beam
    • I- beam
    • T- beam
    • C- Beam

    According to the equilibrium condition

    • Statically determinate beam
    • Statically indeterminate beam

  5. What are the different types of loads acting on a beam

    Here are the various types of loads acting on beams:

    • Point load or concentrated load.
    • Uniformly distributed load.
    • Uniformly varying load.

Conclusion

Today we have talked about different types of beam and their classification. If you have any questions considering this article feel free to ask by commenting below. If you prefer this article, please don’t forget to share it on social media.

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