What is Bandhara irrigation?
There are mostly two types of irrigation systems minor and major. Bandhara irrigation system comes under the minor irrigation system. it’s an area mostly up to a few hectors around 500-2000. A small structure is constructed across a small stream or river as an obstruction to raise the water level on the upper side of the stream and for irrigation of areas around it, where water is diverted directly for irrigation through a canal.
Types of Bandhara irrigation?
Mainly two types of bandhara irrigation are
- Solid bandhara irrigation
- Open bandhara irrigation.
There is a permanent bandhara or is called pucca bandhara. Solid and open bandhara are two types of permanent bandhara.
Construction of this permanent or pucca bandhara depends on temporary bandhara, where a temporary construction is done and if its performance is suitable then after it will be replaced by permanent construction. Permanent/pucca bandhara is usually constructed in stone masonry, brick masonry, or concrete. The height of this bandhara may differ between 2.5 to 3.5 meters. And top width up to 3 to 4 meters.
Also Read: Sprinkler Irrigation System
What is Solid Bandhara?
This type of bandhara is constructed to raise the level of water on the upstream side. Where sufficient openings are kept so that there is no afflux will be generated. Masonry piers are constructed with grooves at regular intervals of 2m. And they will be blocked with the needles in two rows filled out with paddles between them.
Needles are placed in grooves which are provided in piers. Which are made of either masonry, stone, or concrete. The height of solid bandhara may vary from 2.5m to 3.5m with shutters provided on top of that. And without shutters, it may vary from 1.5m to 2.5m. This will act as a solid weir and help to store water after the monsoon mainly.
What is Open Bandhara?
This type of bandhara is constructed to raise the level on the upstream side and is mostly constructed in the Kolhapur district and water can be diverted through a canal on both sides of the bank. It will act as a fully open weir and it comprises several piers with holes or groves in that where needles can be added. Needles are added across the piers to gain a required height of the weir.
We can change the height of the weir as we needed by adding or removing the needles. During floods, needles are removed to avoid the flood situation. The size of needles is 15cm high, 5cm thick, 2m in length. These needles should be changed after every 5 years.
Difference between Solid Bandhara and Open Bandhara
|Solid Bandhara||Open Bandhara|
|In this, permanent construction of bandhara will be done after the temporary and there will be no change in that||In this, permanent construction also has allowance to change the needles as per the requirement of height|
|Flood water can not be controlled in this bandhara||Flood water can be controlled by removing needles|
|This bandhara act as a solid weir||This bandhara act as a fully open weir|
|Height of solid bandhara varies from 2.5m to 3.5m and without any gate 1.5m to 2.5m||Height of open bandhara can be easily varied by removing or adding needles as a requirement|
Advantages of bandhara irrigation
Pros of Bandhara irrigation system are:
- It is a very economical irrigation system.
- Area surrounding where irrigation is needed is compact so irrigation done will be very effective with this weir.
- Surrounding area is very near to the weir so the canal is of short length so transition loss of water is less and it also affects the intensive irrigation.
- Small catchment area covered in weir so wastage of will be utilized fully.
- Sometimes no more construction is needed big stone or simple wall also works as bandhara to store the water on the upstream side.
Disadvantages of Bandhara irrigation
Cons of the Bandhara irrigation system are:
- Because of compact irrigation areas sometimes more water is available which is not used so it will remain unutilized.
- Water supply will be not fixed if its source is from a non-perennial river.
- More than one bandhara is a construction stream than people on the downstream side are adversely affected.
Selection of a site for Bandhara
- Site should be nearer to the area to be irrigated.
- It should be below the junction of more than one stream so a good supply of water will be always there.
- River or stream on which the bandhara will construct should be perennial so a fixed water supply is there.
- Construction of bandhara especially solid needs to have a good foundation.
- Cost of bandhara has to be very economical.
- It should be upstream of steep slop so the water will easily flow down.
- Site should have a direct approach straight to the river so the canal can be constructed on both side banks.
- Site should be in surrounding of the area which needs to be irrigated let’s say any natural within 5km.
- Deep excavation should be avoided for the canal on the sides of the banks.
- Less cultivated areas can be submerged on the upstream side.
- Canal taking off from bandhara should not obstruct any natural drainage across their path.
Also Read: Complete guide on Inundation Canals
Bandhara irrigation scheme
Bandhara irrigation scheme is a special type of irrigation scheme in some parts of Maharashtra. it comes under a minor irrigation scheme where the weir is constructed on the upstream side across the small river or stream with help of diversion weir walls.it serves water to an isolated area on its around 5km through the small canal. Canals will take off the water for irrigation from both sides of the bank on the upstream side. where the weir is constructed with brick, stone masonry, or concrete.
Bandhara irrigation scheme is a very economical practice for irrigation across these small rivers. bandhara is a name given to a small weir. It will use the needed amount of water from the weir to irrigate nearer isolated areas that lost their tracks to the river or stream. The number of bandhara constructed in this scheme on river or stream to use its water accordingly and surplus water spilling from bandhara will work for another bandhara.
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Question and Answer
The source of water for bandhara irrigation is?
The source of water for bandhara irrigation is should be a perennial river or stream.
Bandhara irrigation system is an?
Bandhara irrigation system is an inundation or permanent type irrigation system.
Bandhara irrigation is coming?
Bandhara irrigation is coming under a minor irrigation system.
Bandhara irrigation scheme is a?
Bandhara irrigation scheme is a minor irrigation scheme suitable to irrigate isolated areas.