- What is Stone in Building Construction?
- Classification of Building Stones
- Physical Classification of Stones
- Geological Classification of Stones
- Scientific Classification of Stones
- Pros of Building Stones
- Cons of Building Stones
What is Stone in Building Construction?
Stone is one of the most essential material in building construction, based on the construction necessity different type of stone is used in construction (like for masonry, concrete roofing, dams, roads, etc.)
Classification of Building Stones
There are three types of classification of building stones:
Physical Classification of Stones
- Stratified stone
- Unstratified stone
What is Stratified stone?
Stratified stones mostly consist of different layers in their whole structure of stones. It can be split into different planes by stratification, which is called cleavage or bedding planes.
Example: sandstone, limestone, etc.
Also Read: Methods of Stones Quarrying
What is Unstratified stone?
In unstratified stone there are no such layers, the whole stone has made from the same kind of smaller size granular. In such a case they not be split into layers or planes by stratification. they are a kind of whole stone that has the same grains.
Example: granite, marble, etc.
Geological Classification of Stones
- Sedimentary Rocks
- Metamorphic Rocks
- Igneous Rocks
What are Sedimentary Rocks?
Sedimentary rocks are made of different sediments coming together by one or the other ways and accumulated at a place layer by layer and create rock structure. maybe the sediment carried by water, wind, gravity, runoff, chemical reaction, etc.
Example: stratified stones are also an example of sedimentary rock(sandstone, limestone, etc.)
What are Metamorphic Rocks?
Metamorphic rocks are made from the process called metamorphism. In this process existing rocks change their characteristics like shape, size, color, etc. under pressure and heat. These are maybe sedimentary or igneous kinds of rocks
Example: marble, slate, etc.
What are Igneous Rocks?
Igneous rocks are formed due to the solidification of magma under the earth’s surface. Sometimes magma can not explode and come out of the earth’s surface instead it is converted into solid rock form so based on the depth of magma there are different igneous rocks are formed.
If magma solidified at deeper depth then the granular is more coarse it knowns as plutonic rocks( like granite)-, if it is solidified at shallow depth the granular is the very fine size is known as a hypabyssal rock(like dolerite, microgranite), if magma solidified at nearer to earth surface is known as a volcanic rock(like basalt).
What is Sandstone?
Sandstone is a type of sedimentary rock which is mainly consisting of sand or quartz grains accumulated together. where quartz grains are a resisting component to weathering process. Sandstone is mostly seen of red, yellow, or brown.
What is Granite?
Granite is an igneous rock type of stone that has coarse or medium grains. It is also the most common plutonic rock of the earth’s crust. granite’s most common component is feldspar it is very rich in that material.it is made from the solidification of magma at a certain depth of the earth’s crust.
What is Limestone?
Limestone is also a common type of sedimentary rock, but rich in carbonate. It mainly consists of calcite and aragonite which are also forms of calcium carbonate. this stone forms when dissolved calcium minerals accumulated coming out of water.
What is Slate?
Slate is a type of metamorphic rock that consists of very fine and homogeneous grains.it is obtained from shale type of sedimentary rock which made up of clay or volcanic ash through a very slow metamorphism process. It is the finest grained size metamorphic rock.
Scientific Classification of Stones
- Siliceous Rocks
- Argillaceous Rocks
What are Siliceous Rocks?
Siliceous rocks are sedimentary rocks as per their formation and very rich in silica or silicon dioxide as their main constituent. The most common siliceous rock is chert. They have formed from silica secreting organisms.
What are Argillaceous Rocks?
Argillaceous rocks are sedimentary rocks composed of clay size finer particles. component of the rocks is fine size aluminosilicate, and other clay minerals such as kaolinite, chlorite. Claystone and shales are the most common examples of argillaceous rock.
Pros of Building Stones
Here are the following advantages of building stones:
- Stone is natural construction material, it does not require any other sources to make it. Very sustainable material that is easily available and itself environment friendly and more frequently used.
- Stone is a natural material so it can resist water, fire, wind, pressure which made itself more durable than any other material.
- It is very sustainable and durable for the long term so it required less maintenance in long run.
- As it can resist the natural component like water, wind, etc. if it is constructed properly it can help to regulate certain temperatures also and gives you a comfortable feeling in all weather.
- It also resists fire so in areas where this kind of construction is best such as a border or nearer to that this will be a more durable material for construction and safety purposes.
- It is available in a drastically wide range and also you can work on it as you want to display it so that is more convenient for aesthetical view and also look more beautiful after the finishing is done properly
Cons of Building Stones
Here are the following advantages of building stones:
- As we know more durable and sustainable things can not be available at cheap rates, the stone is expensive as a construction material.
- Stone construction needs very skilled labor and contractors because of its characteristics, everyone can not do this kind of construction. Skilled contractors and laborers are also coming with more expense in the case of others.
- Process of stone construction is also very long because it needs more precise selection as per the construction, handling, and care is also required at the time of its settlement. And very heavier in weight also.
- Stones are frequently available but you need to transport them to your construction site which also increases your transportation cost and time in construction.
Uses of Building Stones
Building stones can be used in different ways and for different kinds of purposes:
- It can be used in building construction of any residential or public.
- Stones are used for concreting purposes like in beams, columns, walls, bridges, etc.
- Stones are also used for the construction of roads and railways line.
- They are used in concrete or masonry construction as an aggregate.
- It is sometimes used in residential construction for aesthetical purposes in which different kinds of stones are used and they work on them to make them more appealing on an aesthetical view.
- It is used for making gabion or retaining walls for controlling floods or landslides.
- It is also used in stones arts where skilled workers make statues and different arts from one stone also.
- By crushing it, sometimes it is used as an alternative to sand when it is not easily available.
- Also, it can be used in damp proofing and fireproof constructions.
- Some kind of stone is used for industrial purposes also like stone knowns as dolomite used in the manufacturing of glass.
- So many other uses are there for building stones based on their properties, characteristics, structure, etc.
Also Read: Different Tests on Building Stones