The surveying can be originated from ancient Egypt. Generally, the great pyramid of Khufu at Giza was built about 2700 BC, 755 feet (230 meters) long and 481 feet (147 meters) high.
Introduction to Surveying
- Surveying is the art of determining the absolute and the relative position points of the earth on or below the earth’s surface.
- The main surveying is done by using the mode of measurements such as linear measurements, angular measurements, directions, and elevations.
- By using surveying, we can establish the maps and boundaries for the locations namely building corners, surface and subsurface features of the earth.
- The surveying also includes the measurement requirements, existing the horizontal and vertical positions of the boundary lines.
- It is also used for the process of mapping, the establishment of the marks to control points, and indications of the boundary lines.
Surveying Definition / Meaning
Surveying is termed as the science and art of making the all-necessary measurements to determine the relative position of the points of the earth and also above or beneath the surface of the earth is known as surveying. Another name for surveying is also known as “land surveying”
What are the Objectives of Surveying?
The following are objectives of surveying are listed below: –
- The main objective of surveying is to prepare maps to show the relative positions of the objects on the surface of the earth.
- Prepare the plan or maps of the area to be surveyed.
- To calculate the field parameters for setting out the operation of actual engineering works.
- By doing surveying the maps have to be prepared for marking the boundaries of countries, states, districts, and others.
- The topographical maps show the natural features such as rivers, streams, hills, irrigation projects, and flood control measures.
- While coming to the military survey is required for strategic planning.
- Mine surveys are required to exploring the mineral wealth eras.
- The astronomical survey is to help the study of the movement of planets and also for calculating local and standard time.
So, these are some of the objectives of surveying that are briefly mentioned above.
Also Read: Traverse Surveying
What are the Methods of Surveying?
The following are the methods of surveying are listed below:
- Geodetic survey
- Cadastral survey
- Engineering survey
- Aerial survey
- Mining survey
- Hydrographical survey
1. Geodetic Survey
The term geodetic survey is defined as the earth surface, considered into the curved surface. This method of survey can be carried out in an area greater than 250 m². This method of survey gives accurate results.
2. Cadastral Survey
The cadastral surveying is termed as to reestablish the original land boundaries of the earth. This method of survey is done for marking on the ground and it will record the information gathered is known as the cadastral survey.
3. Engineering Survey
The term engineering survey is to prepare the planning, design, development, maintenance, and operate the systematic process to collect and analyze spatial information.
4. Aerial Survey
Collecting geomatics or other imagery using airplanes, helicopters, surveillance drones, balloons, or other aerial methods is referred to as aerial surveying.
Photogrammetric technologies and methods are used to provide measurements on aerial images. Aerial surveys can discover a lot of information that is not visible from the ground.
Today, the aerial survey is also known as aero photogrammetry, a type of photogrammetry in which the camera is mounted in the air.
5. Mining Survey
Mining survey is termed as the practice of determining the relative positions of points on or beneath the surface of the earth by direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction & elevation.
The purpose of mining surveying is that minimizes the risk that potential mining sites may not contain resources. This method of survey is also used to provide information about mine and tunnel dimensions.
6. Hydrographical Survey
Hydrographical surveying is termed the science of measurement and description of features that affect marine navigation, marine construction, dredging, offshore oil exploration/offshore oil drilling, and related activities.
The main purpose of hydrographical surveying determine areas subject to silt and scouring and can be used to measure the quantity of water and flow of water in connection with water schemes, Power schemes, and flood controls.
So, these are some of the methods of the surveys that are explained briefly.
What are the Principles of Plane Table Surveying?
The following are the principles of plane table surveying are listed below:
- The basic principle of plane table surveying is the “parallelism”.
- The main principle of plane table surveying is the all the rays to be drawn through various of all details should pass through the survey stations.
- The position of the plane table surveying at each station is identical and at each station, the plane table should be oriented in the direction of the magnetic north.
What are the Principles of EDM in Surveying?
The following are the principles of EDM surveying are listed below:
- The full form of EDM is an Electronic Distance Measurement. The main principle of EDM is a machining technique to determine the length between two points by looking at a phase change into the electronic energy waves.
- This instrument measures the slope distance between the transmitter and receiver by modulating the continuous carrier wave at different frequencies.
Also Read: Duties of Construction Surveyor
Frequently Asked Questions
Why surveying is important?
The surveying is important to establish the property boundaries of public and private lands, to determine the shape, size, and magnetic field of the earth and the boundary surveys shows the utilities such as driveways, fences, and building property.
What are the merits of the surveying?
The advantages of the surveying are listed below:
1. High Representativeness (Surveys provide a high level of general capability in representing a large population)
2. Low Costs
3. Convenient Data Gathering
4. Good Statistical Significance
5. Little or No Observer Subjectivity
6. Precise Results
Where Plane Table Surveying is used?
The plane table surveying is used mostly for small-scale surveys. It is simply cheaper than a theodolite survey. It is also used in surveying industrial areas.
What are the different sizes of Plane Table available in market?
The common sizes of plane tables available in the market are 40×30cm, 75×60cm or 45cm square, 60 cm square, etc.
What are Ariel surveys used for?
The ariel surveys can be a useful tool for the planner. The satellite imagery and very high flight height aerial photography reveal land-use patterns useful in regional planning.