There are different parts of roof, let us discuss their importance, functions, requirements and different parts of the roof.
Definition of Roof
Roof may be defined as the uppermost part of the structure that provides the covering for the structure and protects the structure from the effects of weather such as rain, wind, sun, etc.
Requirements of a good roof:
- Roof should be well drained.
- Roof should have strength and stability to carry superimposed loads acting on it.
- Roof should protect the structure against rains, snow, wind, sun, etc.
- Roof should be durable against the adverse effects of climate and environment.
- Roof should grant the proper insulation against sound and heat.
- Roof should have an efficient waterproofing system.
Roof should be replaced after 20 – 30 years of construction to avoid leakage and breaking of the roof. Replacement time varies for different materials used in the construction of the roof. Replacement of the roof is also very important for the betterment of the structure.
If the roof is made up of concrete then there is s just a need for crack checking and filling up those cracks. Tile roof is also durable and does not need a full replacement. Roof is an essential part of the structure and should be constructed and maintained properly for the long life span of the structure.
Function / Importance of the roof
- The main function of the roof is to cover and protect the building.
- Also to keep out the rainwater, snow, wind, dust, dirt, etc. from the structure.
- It also helps in preserving the inner heat of the structure inside it during winters
- It also keeps the interior structure cool in summer
- It is designed in such a way that it can accommodate all the stresses acting on it.
- It is suitable during the change in temperature and moisture content changes on the roof.
- It provides lateral restrain and support for the adjacent walls.
- Roof provides a good appearance to our structure.
- Roof also gives better structural stability.
- It also provides thermal insulation for the structure.
Also Read: Single Roof and Double Roof
Parts of Roof and their function
1. Roof decking / Solid decking: It is also known as Roof Sheathing. It is the foundation of the entire roof of the structure. It is the wooden baseboards that help in the framing of the roof.
2. Ridge: This part is also known as Ridge board and Roof beam. It is the piece of wood or metal that joins the trusses, rafters and decking of the roof structure at the junction and creates the triangle peak at the top of the roof. It is the highest point of the roof. It helps in build up the roof frame and makes it more solid.
3. Shingles: Shingles may be defined as roof covers that are in rectangular and flat shapes. The main function of the shingles is to stop water that are seeped through the eaves. Shingles make the roof waterproof.
4. Soffit: It works in hiding the rafters and the ceiling joists. It is very aesthetic. The main function of the soffit is to protect the rafters from environmental issues such as mold, and moisture. It helps in keeping the rafters durable and rot-free for years.
5. Valley: This is the part of the roof that connects the two sloped roof to form in a angle of 90°. The main function of this roof valley is to collect the rainwater or water that falls on a roof and passes the collected water through a funnel and fall down into the gutter system.
6. Eave: This is the lowest part of the roof styles. This part is also called as Roof Edge. This part is located where the gutter connects the roof so that the wall should remain clear and water does not damage the structure by constantly running down.
7. Flashing: This is waterproofing material used in many intersections of the roof. The main function of this part of the roof is to stop water from getting through any openings in the roof of the structure and other critical parts of the structure. There are various types of roof flashing some of them are:
- Chimney Flashing – This is the waterproofing substance that is used in the junction of the roof to the chimney. This flashing is used control the penetration of moisture from the chimney into the house.
- Skylight Flashing – This is another waterproofing material that is used in between the skylight frame and glass to avoid the moisture content on the surface of the glass.
- Valley Flashing – This is the waterproofing material used in between the valley and roof to avoid the entry of water from the intersection of valley and roof.
- Dormer Flashing – This flashing is installed on the sides and top of the roof.
8. Rake: The rake may be refers to the roof with slopes sides at the end of the gabled roof. The rake can be flat or over hanged structure.
9. Hip: It is the external angle as the intersection where the adjacent sides of the roof that slope meet. The triangular sloping surface formed at the intersection of hips on roof edges is termed as Hip End. Hipped roofs are commonly used din hilly areas where the winds and snowfall is heavily fallen. It also helps the ice easily slide down from the roof surface.
10. Dormer: It is usually referred to as the dormer window because it gives space for the skylight. This is part of the outer surface of the roof. Providing a dormer to the roof also gives more ventilation, and more natural light and allows better airflow inside the structure.
11. Drip edge: It is the kind of flashing for the hidden or covered roof features. It protects the inner side of the roof from the water flow. Most of cases it is not important to provide drip edge because gutters are already provided. But still, it has its importance and features.
12. Fascia: It works to support the gutter. It is positioned along the roof’s edge and fixed with the rafter.
13. Rafters: These are metal or wooden frame which acts as a skeleton for the roof. It is a very important part of the roof because without it there wouldn’t be any shape or structure of the roof. The main function of the rafter is to provide the roof deck that can bear the load acting on the roof.
14. Underlayment: This part is also known as underlayment membranes. This is a type of protective blanket for the entire roof. These can be rubber, synthetic materials, fiberglass, etc. They all act as waterproof materials which prevent moisture from building up on the roof. The most common types of underlayment are; felt, valley, rafter, and synthetic.
15. Ice and Water protector: These are the shields of a specific type of underlayment that prevent the roof from wind-driven, heavy rains, ice dams, etc.
16. Downspout: It is the pipe whose main function is to connect the roof from the gutter so that the rainwater or water present on the roof get directly pass from the roof to the gutter. These pieces of the pipe may be of plastic, galvanized steel or metal, etc.
17. Skylight: It is provided as a window on the roof for ventilation and natural lighting. It is something not suitable for the roof structure because there are more chances of leakage from this window.
18. Abutment: It is the space in the roof where the slope intersects the vertical part of the roof such as a wall or chimney.
19. Collar beam: When the span or load increases on the roof rafter then there may be a formation of the bend. To avoid the bend on it vertical members are installed and fixed at one-third or one-half of the height from the wall to the ridge. This vertical member is known as the collar beam.
20. Flat roof: The roofs which are laid horizontal and nearly have no slope are known as flat roofs. It is very important to be noted that, there is no roof which is perfectly flat or leveled. There should be some slope on the roof so that rainwater or water on the roof can be easily and simply drained out. These roofs can be used as a terrace for playing, gardening, planting, sleeping, celebrating functions, etc. Construction and maintenance of such a type of roof are very simple and easy.
21. Low-pitch roof: These are roofs whose slope pitch is less than 2:12.
22. Gutters: It is provided for water management. Gutter system is installed in the structure for collecting the rainwater from the roof and manage it for many different uses for household or field works.
23. Chimney: It is provided on the rooftop from the firebox which is inside of the house for passing out the smoke from it. It also supplies air for the fire.
24. Lookout: It is extended as a cantilever from the structure’s exterior wall and supports the roof.
25. Ridge Tile: The ridge is the point on the roof where two slopes intersect. At the junction, there is an opening from where small animals can escape or enter into the house. To avoid that ridge tile is provided at the junction.
Also Read: Different Types of Roof Trusses
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