Common Timber in India


According to the “Forestry Statistics India” survey in India about 24% of total land is under forestation also there are about 140 species of timber in Indian forests. But a very little of these are commonly used .


List of some common timbers in India

  • Teak
  • Deodar
  • Kali
  • Chir
  • Shisham
  • Sal
  • Babool
  • Oak
  • Mango
  • Simul
  • Bamboo
  • Bakul
  • Banyan
  • Siris
  • Mahogany

Let us discuss one by one about the common timbers

Teak

In India, teak is the most commonly used timber.It is also the important type of timber and among the most valuable trees of world . It is commonly found in southern India.

Properties and uses:

  1. Structure: It is a big tree with broad leaves.
  2. It can be easily seasoned and does not corrode the iron fastenings.
  3. Fire resistant : It is fire resistant and also shrinks a little It resists the acidic action and action of white ants.

Uses: It is commonly used for various structural works like house.

It is easily identified by the following properties :

  1. Colour: Its colour is deep yellow to dark brown i.e. Yellow when frosh and brown on seasoning.
  2. Toughness: It is hard , strong and durable.
  3. Weight: It has more weight (760kg/m3)and it is a hard wood type timber.
  4. Structure: Its leaves are broad and it shrinks a little
  5. Seasoning: It can be seasoned easily and it is identified by its distinct smell.

Deodar

This type of timber may be identified by its distinct characteristics.

The following are the important characteristics of this timber:

  1. Colour: Deodar is a light coloured timber. Its yellow colour becomes more dark when exposed to atmosphere.
  2. Smell: It gives sweet or pleasant smell.
  3. Tough: It is hard, strong and compact . it is of softwood timber .
  4. Structure: The trees of this timber are tall , straight and long with conical loaves.
  5. Miscellaneous: These are evergreen trees and their height varies between 20-30 m.

Chir

The following re the distinct properties of this timber which by may be identified:

  1. Colour: It is light brown in colour .It may also be identified by either red or yellow colour.
  2. Weight: like deoder , it is also light in weight (560 kg/m3).
  3. It is highly resinous.
  4. It is a soft wood type timber. So its strength is very low.

Kail

It  can be identified by the following characteristics:

  1. Colour: Its cooler is light brown.
  2. Seasoning: It can be seasoned easily.
  3. Weight: It is light in weight as compared to deodar or chir (480 kg/ m3).
  4. It is an ever green tree.
  5. Its properties are almost similar to deodar but it is inferior to that . Also it is superior then chir.

Sal

It is identified by the following characteristics:

  1. Colour: Its colour is yellow or light brown or dark brown.
  2. Weight: It is also a heavy type timber (800 kg / m3).
  3. Toughness:  It is strong, hard, compact and durable.

Shisham

It is also known as sissoo, This tree is also famous by the name Tali.

It is identified by the following characteristics:

  1. Colour: its colour is dark brown for heartwood and light brown for sapwood. The colour darkness on exposure.
  2. Weight: It is also a heavy timber (880kg/m3).
  3. Toughness: It is hard , durable and tough.
  4. Seasoning: Seasoning is easy.
  5. Quality: It is a high class timber and has good appearance.

Mango

It is easily identified by its common use. The main characteristics of mango are :

  1. Colour: It is deep grey in colour.
  2. Strength: its strength is not high but it is moderately strong.
  3. Weight: it is light in weight (655 kg /m3).

Babool

It is identified by the following characteristics:

  1. Colour: Its colour is whitish red which becomes red brown by exposing to atmosphere.
  2. Strength: It is strong and hard.
  3. Weight: It is heavy in weight (880 kg / m3).
  4. Durability: It is tough and so durable.
  5. Structure: Its height is medium and has small leaves. It bears yellow flowers with thorns.

Oak

It is commonly used for preparing sports items. It can be identified by:

  1. Colour: It is yellowish brown in colour.
  2. Strength: Its strength is high . It is durable also
  3. Weight: it weighs 865 kg/m3

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